MHD Power - MHD Energy
Disruptive Technology - MHD Efficiency at 70-80%

Magneto Hydrodynamic Electrical Power Generators

At The Forefront of The Energy Revolution

A Quantum Leap that Advances MHD Power was Just Made with the Use of New Superconducting Magnets

We are Pushing the Boundaries of  Innovation

MHD Hybrid Power Plants are the Future of the Power Industry

MHD Topping Cycle Will Save Money and Energy When Installed on Existing Power Plants

LMMHD Bottoming Cycle Works with All Types of Waste Heat and Turns it Into Power

"Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) power plants offer the potential for large-scale electrical power generation with reduced impact on the environment." - Britannica

MHD Energy has a distinguished team made up of scientists, engineers, professors, and entrepreneurs united to make the world a cleaner, better place with MHD power.

Current Projects:
1) MHD Topping Cycle: To Put on Existing Power Plants Increasing The Power Plants Overall Efficiencies.
2) Waste Heat LMMHD Liquid Metal MHD Generators: Bottoming-Cycle Systems, Also Known as "Waste Heat to Power". LMMHD Waste Heat Recovery To Power Generation System Has A Number of Unique Attributes Which Makes Its Applications To a Number of Heat Sources Very Attractive. It Can Work on Any Type of Waste Heat. Huge Potential Market!.
3) Standalone Hybrid MHD Power Plants: The Stacking of Different Types of Heat Engines - The Most Efficient Power Plants in the World!
4) The World’s Most Efficient Solar Electric Technology - Solar Driven MHD Power Generator Harness the Abundant Power of the Sun - By Using Concentrated Solar Power to Heat a Magnetohydrodynamic Plasma We Will Achieve Efficiencies in Excess of 60%.

Potential Market: MHD Power Plants For Utilities Around the Word and Mobile MHD Power Generation Systems for Military Applications - Compact and Mobile

Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) power generation, is a method for converting heat directly into electrical energy without the use of a rotating electrical power generator.

A MHD Topping Cycles is a Dynamic Improvement in Efficiency of Existing Power Plants by 10 to 20%
The World's Most Efficient Combined Cycle Plant the EDF Bouchain has an Efficiency of 62.22%. Our MHD Topping Cycle Can Increase the Output 10-20%!

Innovation - Patent Portfolio: Three Related MHD Patents Granted Many more Patents to Come!

Multiple Licensing, Joint Venture, Commercialization Pathways Possible. Once this first stage prototype is constructed and tested, the Company anticipates that it will be prepared to disclose its technology to the global utility industry which will recognize the benefits of the technology and its immediate application. The Concentrating Solar Power Utility, Inc. (CSPU) MHD technology marks a transformative benchmark breakthrough in the advancement of large-scale MHD power. In short, a successful prototype will represent a quantum leap for innovative MHD technology. And once proven, CSPU. will seek to license the technology to a global array of current and developing power utility customers and to continue research and development of MHD electric generators.

Groundbreaking Engineering Reaching New Levels of Power Generation Efficiency and Energy Savings

Energy is One of The Most Serious Challenges Facing Humanity

MHD Power System Technology Directly Converts Thermal/Kinetic Power to Useable Electrical Power! About 75% of electrical energy is generated by thermal stations.

Significant progress has been made in MHD development of all critical components and sub system technologies.

The generation of electric power by passing a conducting fluid though a magnetic is not a new concept. In the late 1970's you would need 27 megawatts of electricity of power using a Electromagnet to produce a continuous 3. 7 tesla magnetic field. However today with state of the art Superconducting Magnets breakthrough technology, we can produce the same continuous 3. 7 tesla magnetic field for a fraction of the power needed in the late 1970's. The more powerful the magnetic field the greater the power output of a MHD Generator. MHD power generation systems can improve the efficiency of other conventional power systems.

"MHD (Magneto-Hydrodynamic) Electric Generator will operate more efficiently than conventional power plants." - NASA

"The electricity necessities of the world are increasing at alarming rate and the power demand has been running ahead of supply." - World Applied Sciences Journal

One of The Most Pressing Challenges of Our Time
How to Reduce CO2 Emissions
MHD Offers Solutions to Global Warming

More Than 70% of the World’s Greenhouse Gas Emissions
Come From Energy-Related Sources

Company Profile - US-based, Concentrating Solar Power Utility, Inc. (CSPU) specializes in the development of MHD technologies using high temperatures. The management team brings experience from academia and consulting in the energy industry. The company has signed an exclusive licensing agreement with Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute’s Office of Technology Commercialization.

Magneto-Hydro-Dynamics (MHD) is derived from Magneto-meaning magnetic field, Hydro-meaning liquid, and Dynamics-meaning movement. MHD generates electricity directly from a body of very hot moving gas without any mechanical moving parts. Magnetohydrodynamics works by using magnets to extract electricity from superheated charged gas. In a sense MHD replaces the wires used in conventional electrical generators with ionized gas.



MHD Faraday Generator

MHD is thermodynamically more efficient than nuclear or conventional steam power plants. The MagentoHydroDynamic power generation technology provides attractive alternative generation potential to the electric power utilities.

"Today, near all of our power plants (coal, natural gas, hydroelectric, wind, concentrated solar, nuclear, bio-mass) use mechanical turbines to generate electrical power. In the future, if developed, we may use a more efficient generator which operates without moving parts. This is called a MHD generator" - DOE

Maximum Use of Technology

High-temperature direct-energy conversion capability of an MHD dynamo combined with an already sophisticated steam-powered turbine industry knowledge base allows the cascading cycle design to achieve breakthrough first-law energy efficiencies previously unheard of in the power industry!

"Of all the direct energy conversion methods exploitable, the MHD Power Generation seems to be the most promising for a utility system" - Power Plant Engineering - Third Edition By P.K.Nag

The highly-engineered MHD Hybrid Power Plants can utilize any heat source, such as combustion of a fuel e.g., oil, coal, natural gas, chemical reaction, high-grade waste heat, solar, and geothermal. It can also utilize Atomic MHD - Nuclear-Uranium Plasma - self-sustained fissioning plasma for closed cycle MHD power generation using a plasma core reactor.

- What we have. We have a solid patent combining the advances in super conductive magnets and magneto hydrodynamics for the use of generating power at higher efficiencies. we also have identified applications and potential partners for power generation and other applications.

- What we will do with the investment. We need x to build and demonstrate a prototype.

- What we will have at the end of the investment. With such demonstration we will seek partners, licensees or possible sale for further development and commercialization of this technology. The MHD topping cycle could be deployed commercially by 2020 and add an estimated 6 to 10%-point on overall cycle efficiency!


Superiority of MHD Power Generation
Superconducting Permanent Magnets
CSPU on BBC Radio
Concentrated Sunlight Heat Electricity - Solar MHD
Highly Disruptive Technology
CSPU Intellectual Property Portfolio
CSPU Management
CSPU in Forbes
CSPU in the Press

Related Links
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Licenses Novel “Magnetohydrodynamics” Technology
Letter from Jian Sun, PhD - Director, Center for Future Energy Systems - Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute

MHD Generators Are Energy Conversion Machines

"Magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) electric generator works on the principle that any conductor of electricity that is moved through a magnetic field will generate in itself a current of electricity. This applies not only to copper wires (as in conventional generators), but to gases, which become conductors when they are made so hot that some of their atoms separate (ionize) into electrically charged particles. If forced through a magnetic field, a stream of ionized gas causes an electrical current to flow across it." - TIME Mag

The electricity industry is the biggest source of greenhouse gas emission in the United States, according to the Environmental Protection Agency.

Global Energy Consumption Market Value Surpassed $9.1 trillion

The chief virtue of the MHD generator is higher efficiency. The more efficiently power is generated, the cheaper it becomes. MHD Power is the new frontier. It is Cheaper, more reliable, and cleaner than anything in use today by the electric power industry.

MHD power generation will massively increase efficiency in electric power generation! MHD can help reduce carbon emissions, by increasing the amount of power produced by existing fossil fuel plants for the same amount of fuel. MHD is the production of electrical power utilizing a high temperature conducting plasma moving through an intense magnetic field. An MHD generator consists of a conductor moving through a fixed magnetic field.

MHD will increase power generation without increasing CO2 emissions; it will reduce pollution per unit of energy produced, and lower life-cycle costs.

It can reduce CO2 emissions while maintaining electric power generation levels (this could be further enhanced if older, low efficiency, high emission plants could be retired due to the availability of increased generation from MHD-enabled plants).

"Let's say that MHD will improve the overall combined cycle plant efficiency by 5%. Now calculate how the 5% to 10% improvement /MW reduces the same 5% - 10% reduction in CO2 emission, but calculate the actual savings in pounds of CO2. We then can calculate the number of natural gas plants and the MW's they produce and thus the entire savings in the US if MHD was implement. It should be a gargantuan number - I am guess like 10 Trillion lbs of CO2 less." - Chief Science and Engineering Officer Professor Doug Chrisey

1942: First recorded to use the word magnetohydrodynamics by Hannes Alven. Received 1970 Nobel Prize in Physics for his work on magnetohydrodynamics.

Principle: This effect is a result of Faradays Laws of Electro Magnet Induction (i.e. when the conductor moves through a magnetic field, it generates an electric field perpendicular to the magnetic field and direction of conductor).

The MHD generation or, also known as magneto hydrodynamic power generation is a direct energy conversion system which converts the heat energy directly into electrical energy, without any intermediate mechanical energy conversion, as opposed to the case in all other power generating plants. Therefore, in this process, substantial fuel economy can be achieved due to the elimination of the link process of producing mechanical energy and then again converting it to electrical energy.

MHD Energy was founded by Thomas P. Kay a former Energy Consultant to ExxonMobil . The company was incorporated in 2009 as Concentrating Solar Power Utility Inc, (CSPU). CSPU plans on licensing and developing partners to build state-of-the-art Utility-Scale MHD Topping Cycles for existing power plants.

Modern Technological Developments Driving Innovation

Intellectual Property Portfolio - High Efficiency Magnetohydrodynamic Power Generation Using Ultra- High Magnetic Fields (Superconducting Permanent Magnets) and Novel Cooling - Patent

Superconducting Permanent Magnets can be Used to Improve the Efficiency of any Electrical Machine.

Peripheral Components for Other Industries CSPU is Developing Superconducting Permanent Magnets for MHD Power Generation and Many other Exciting Applications

Enormous Potential of this Advanced Energy Source

MHD Efficiency at 70-75%


Adapted from N. Harada, The International Conference on Electrical Engineering
“MHD for Advanced Power Generation”, No. O-043.

MHD Energy is one of the most important advancements in the energy field in the last 100 years. The underlying principle of MHD power generation is elegantly simple. In a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) generator an electrically conducting gas replaces the rotating copper coil of the currently used electric generator.

This science fiction sounding technology uses superconducting magnets to strip electrons from high energy plasma jets, and generate power with no moving parts.

Using patented MHD technology CSPU plans to make MHD power practical and affordable on a broad commercial scale for the first time. While addressing some of humanity’s most pressing challenges. CSPU is leading the way to cost-competitive, MHD electricity.

"Efficiency matters the most for establishing a power plant. MHD power plants have an overall efficiency of 55-60% but it can be boosted up to 80% or more by using superconducting magnets in this process." - The Institute for Research and Development India

MHD Electric-Power Utilities

MHD Superconducting Generators


Higher Efficiency Power Technology
High Efficiency Magnetohydrodynamic Power Generation
Using Ultra-High Magnetic Fields and Novel Cooling - United States Patent 8,786,140

Print - PDF of Patent
Promising Technologies Patented

New Capabilities for MHD Power Generation

Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) Energy Conversion can increase the efficiency of fossil-fueled power plants.

CSPU innovation - integrated advanced systems design utilizing proven state of the art technologies and enabling more efficient power systems for utility applications.

MHD can change the world's use of energy
MHD has high heat/high efficiency

A magnetohydrodynamic generator (MHD generator) is a high performance magnetohydrodynamic device that transforms thermal energy and kinetic energy into electricity.

CSPU Plans to design / develop MHD enhancement's to traditional power plants.

CSPU plans to demonstrate a working MHD system's unique features and performance potential. Which will represent the intermediate stage between laboratory scale experiments and an industrial scale demonstration MHD project.

Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) is a direct-fired scalable electric power production technology that is being developed as a high-temperature “topping cycle” power extraction to higher efficiency for conventional power plants. , and a new type of super-efficient power plant. The unique value of MHD is that it permits an older single-cycle fossil-fuel power plant to be upgraded to high efficiency.

The Stacking of Heat Engines:

1) MHD (magneto hydrodynamics) engine (40-65% conversion) - MHD Topping Layer Extract Energy 1260C
2) Brayton engine (29 -35% conversion) - Brayton/Core Layer Extract Energy 980C
3) Organic Rankin engine (5-7%c conversion). - Organic Rankin Bottom Layer Extract Energy 250C

This combination will make the CSPU MHD, hybrid generating system the most efficient way of converting energy into electricity.

"In the MHD generator the advantage of having no moving parts allows to work at higher temperatures than a conventional energy conversion. It is possible to work with temperature around 3000K, and a these temperature the maximum theoretical efficiency would be near 90%." - International Journal of Scientific and Research

CPSU was formed in 2009 by Thomas P. Kay to develop and commercialize high temperature (and high efficiency) novel patented MHD technology, which it believes will dramatically improve the efficiency of electrical power generation.

CSPU primary differentiator lies with its suite of intellectual properties that are ready to be swiftly implemented and commercialized.

Efficiency matters the most for establishing a power plant. A power plant with MHD alone should achieve 65% theoretical efficiency, but you can harvest the hot exhaust gas. The latter can yield an additional 10% to add to the system efficiency or 75%.

"Direct power extraction via magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) principles offers a potential step improvement in thermal efficiencies over energy systems utilizing traditional turbomachinery. This is principally due to the lack of moving parts in an MHD generator, as the temperature limits of the moving parts tend to limit cycle temperatures in traditional combustion driven systems." - US Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory

The rocket science is already done - all that remains are to turn the prototypes into a low-cost, mass-producible design. It is now just a question of good, old-fashioned engineering. CSPU MHD super-efficient proprietary energy technology is critical to saving mankind from the ever present danger of climate change.

We will demonstrate that the MHD generator technology is superior to all other electricity generators. The successful completion of this project will lead to the development of a closed loop MHD electric power plant prototype with estimated efficiencies greater than 60%.

Our long term goal is to develop an integrated system with a useful life of 20 years or more of continuous operation. The system would be scalable in terms of its electricity output and corresponding purchase and maintenance cost.

Magnetohydrodynamics or Thermionic Power Conversion

The magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) approach to electric power generation offers a unique combination of high-efficiency large-scale power generation. The role of MHD power generation has global significance in the field of energy. .

Technological advancements show great promise to make MHD a more viable option to meet society's energy needs. CSPU will be using a new type of Superconducting Permanent Magnets for the first time with Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) Power Plants.

Because of the higher temperature generated MHD is more efficient than older types of thermal technologies that work at a much lower temperature. The laws of thermodynamics tell us that to generate power from a heat source (e.g. a burning fuel), the higher the temperature, and the more efficient it will be.

"It is funny for me having published research for 30 years and suddenly I am interviewed about a topic that I have a recent patent on, but no publications. The number that catches everyone is the 60% efficiency" -Professor Douglas B. Chrisey Ph.D. Department of Physics and Engineering, Tulane University
- Douglas B. Chrisey on BBC Radio talking about MHD.

High-field magnets for Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) Energy Conversion can increase the efficiency of fossil-fueled power plants.

Using natural gas, fuel oil, or coal to generate plasma to operate an MHD generator, will improved overall plant efficiencies in excess of 60% using high temperature superconductors (HTS) permanent magnets.

• The efficiency improvement is based on the high temperature of the plasma and the extremely high magnetic fields (potentially 16 T) only possible through using HTS permanent magnets. This will be a great improvement over existing MHD systems to convert fossil fueled power into electrical energy.


Improved MHD Technology is Applicable to Fossil-Fueled Power Plants

Potential Heat Sources
Oil - Natural gas - Geothermal - Nuclear - Solar

MHD topping cycle generators will increase the efficiency of existing power plants. The big difference with MHD for green energy or just energy conversion is that we have the potential for such high efficiencies. Other technologies are resorting to rare and expensive materials or complicated optics to squeeze out incremental changes.

MHD Hybrid Power Plants can use any heat source, such as solar, geothermal, combustion of a fuel (e.g., oil, coal, or natural gas), chemical reaction or even high-grade waste heat and directly converts such heat source into electricity through an MHD technique.

Thermal efficiency versus working temperature for different MHD power conversion systems. The effect of increased temperature on efficiency is clear.

MHD has many important attributes for power conversion including:

  • High working temperatures.
  • High Carnot-cycle efficiency.
  • Readily combined as a topping cycle with other heat generating systems.

The high magnetic field is a key feature required to increaseMHD system efficiency. However, iron core electromagnets have proven impractical for use in MHD energy conversion devices because they require enormous current draw to sustain high Tesla magnetic flux densities. Prior art MHD energy conversion devices have, therefore, been limited to the use of iron-ore magnets having magnetic flux densities of no greater than 1-3 Tesla.

The recent demonstration of superconductive permanent magnets with magnetic flux densities of up to 16 Tesla is a very encouraging development that can enable commercially viable high efficiency solar MHD technology.

Waste Heat LMMHD Recovery Power Generation


The company will also be developing Low temperature liquid metal MHD (LMMHD) bottoming cycle extracting energy from any waste streams. We are developing a very efficient LMMHD Waste heat recovery power generate that can capture 8 to 15 percent of extra power from any very low heat source form 230 degrees and below. This has never been done before with a state of the art MHD generator with no moving parts and simplicity of operation. Plus the LMMHD Waste Heat Recovery Power generator could also run on solar energy using Parabolic Trough Solar Reflector Collectors or evacuate tube solar thermal collectors. Solar energy conversion into electrical energy by means of a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) generator. It would be designed to be able to work with any type of waste heat. Capturing Waste Heat With LMMHD Generator. 1) CO2-free electricity generation from waste heat - Green (no emissions) 2) Increase in energy efficiency - Maximum production efficiency - Reduce energy bills 3) Conservation of resources 4) More independence through the use of self-generated energy 5) Free Energy - Waste heat from industrial processes BIG MARKET 6) fuel-flexible) Geothermal energy Landfill heat energy ...etc 7) Unprocessed Waste heat should be used and with the latest advances in LMMHD! In a typical gas or coal-fired power plant, about 40% to 50% of the input energy from the fuel is wasted as heat. Finding an efficient way to capture and use this wasted energy would both reduce costs and cut carbon emissions. Types and temperature range and characteristics for Industrial Waste Heat Sources [1] Waste Heat Source Temperature Range Cleanliness Furnace or heating system exhaust gases 600 – 2,000 Varies Gas (combustion) turbine exhaust gases 900 – 1,100 Clean Reciprocating engines Jacket cooling water 190 – 200 Clean Exhaust gases (for gas fuels) 900 – 1,100 Mostly clean Hot surfaces 150 – 600 Clean Compressor after-inter cooler water 100 – 180 Clean Hot products 200 – 2,500 Mostly clean Steam vents or leaks 250 – 600 Mostly clean Condensate 150 – 500 Clean Emission control devices – thermal oxidizers, etc. 150 – 1,500 Mostly clean.

LMMHD- OMACON (Optimized Magnetohydrodynamic Conversion System) system. This is a most simple natural convection system arranged vertically for use of gravity forces. The basic system consists of two pipes (an upcomer and downcomer) connected at the bottom with a crossover pipe and with a simple tank (the separator) joining them at the top. A mixer is located at the bottom of the upcomer and an MHD generator, from which electrical power is extracted, is located in the down comer or lower crossover pipe.

Operation of the system is as follows. A vapor or gas (the thermodynamic working fluid) is introduced into the mixer at the bottom of the upcomer at an appropriate temperature and pressure.. A two-phase fluid of lower density is created. As the two-phase fluid flows to the separator, the gaseous phase undergoes an expansion from the high pressure in the mixer to the low pressure in the separator, acceleration the fluid and lowering its density, The gaseous phase (working fluid) is disengaged in the separator plenum by buoyancy (gravity) forces, thus producing a single-phase flow return into the downcomer.

MHD has the potential to significantly improve the performance of all future power plants.

In order to confirm the validation of this new patented technology and prove the overall performance efficiency of the system, the Company will be engineering and designing a bench top prototype of the world’s first MHD Superconducting Generator. Superconducting is a “magical” state of matter.

The working prototype would enable CSPU to test different aspects of the system and help refine the functionality and efficiently of the design. It would also allow the Company to test the performance of various materials in order to determine the best materials to use.

This Record-Breaking MHD prototype will prove the viability of MHD Superconducting Generators, prior to Mass production.

"The MHD energy conversion process can contribute greatly to the solution of the serious air and thermal pollution problems faced by all steam - electric power plants while it simultaneously assures better utilization for our natural resources. It can therefore be claimed that the development of MHD for electric utility power generation is an objective of national significance." - Scribd

The MHD power generation is the most promising direct energy conversion method because of higher conversion efficiency as well as possibility to develop systems for bigger capacity.

Revenue Generation – Implement joint venture/licensing strategy with strategic partners. Equipment sales, electricity supply, financing and services.


Superiority of MHD Power Generation
Superconducting Permanent Magnets
CSPU on BBC Radio
Concentrated Sunlight Heat Electricity - Solar MHD
Highly Disruptive Technology
CSPU Intellectual Property Portfolio
CSPU Management
CSPU in Forbes
CSPU in the Press

Related Links
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Licenses Novel “Magnetohydrodynamics” Technology
Letter from Jian Sun, PhD - Director, Center for Future Energy Systems - Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute
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